I decided to show everything in diagrams. Visualization always helps.
Study this article calmly and thoughtfully.
O is images, feelings, imagination, our consciousness. This is what any language is attached to and describes. This is the core. The more educated a person is, the better his language is formed. It is easier to learn words and use them.
P is a native language, in most cases the first language of a person.
H – new language being learned (target)
B is the base language in which the target language is studied. When a person learns his first “foreign” language, it is logical that the base language can be only one available – the native language.
Why is the new language (H) behind the circle?
Everything is simple. To say something in a new language (H), we first need to know how this word is translated in the base language (B). Therefore, the translation from one language to another takes place in the head, and only then we pronounce it.
That is, the new language (H) is connected to the images of consciousness (O) not directly, but only with the help of the basic language (B). Therefore, at the initial stages, the speed of speech is very slow. And that’s normal.
At this stage, the new language (H) moves from the subordinate to the automated class (A) on a level with the native language (P).
This means 2 things:
1) now you have 2 languages that are directly related to core images (O). There is no need for constant translation. Speaking and thinking becomes fast and confident, as in the native language.
2) now you can learn any new language either natively or automated.
The moment of passing this stage should be clearly recorded in the program and in the student’s mind.
If you are still translating already known words and grammar from language to language, it means that the language is not yet automated.
At this stage, we continue to learn new languages, supporting the existing ones: native and the first automated one.
Now the base language (B) can be any learned language.
The base language (B) for the new language can be the native language (P), as before.
That is, if you previously taught English in Ukrainian, now Spanish (H) in Ukrainian (R).
The base language (B) for the new language can be any automated (A).
That is, if you previously learned English in Ukrainian, now you can learn Spanish (H) in English (A).
And so on ad infinitum, you can choose the base language (B)
– or Ukrainian (R)
– or in English (A)
– or Spanish (A)
Languages should be learned both separately from each other and in combination.
In order for everything to go smoothly and pleasantly, it is worth having a clear starting program, namely a clearly written strategy of interaction between languages.
The program addresses the following issues:
– does not allow you to mix languages when you don’t need to;
– concentrates on specific tasks depending on your experience, does not allow you to study that. that it is still too early;
– prompts and stimulates the development of specific multilingual skills.
– automates classes, you don’t need to worry about the correctness of the path, because everything is already written and checked.
Let’s analyze several classic options:
If the alphabets are similar, it is “+”. Because it saves time. Therefore, the only thing that will be required is to analyze certain small features of the sound of the sounds of each language.
But in the case of learning, let’s say, the Japanese language, it takes weeks, and for some students even months, to learn a fundamentally new writing and sound.
There are whole families of languages in which the vocabulary sounds either almost identical, or very similar, with a certain flora of language peculiarities. For example, English and French, Spanish and Italian.
If the vocabulary is similar:
pluses: it’s easier to remember words
– at the initial stages, it is possible to get very confused in a clear pronunciation, again due to the same similarity of sound. Especially when you have both languages at an elementary level.
Although, if one language is at a high level, then such confusion for the second language is reduced to a minimum and only the pluses remain.
– when learning several similar languages at the same time, you get tired faster and start to get bored due to the monotony.
If the lexin is not similar:
– much less confusion in pronunciation in the initial months
– you can qualitatively switch to another language as a vacation, you will always find something new, different and interesting
cons: you remember words a little longer, as there are fewer already existing associations with other languages
There are essentially only one pluses here. Similarity of grammar greatly simplifies language learning and significantly speeds up the result.
1. One language is dominant.
When learning several languages at the same time, it is always good if one language was dominant. She gets more attention and more hours. Thus, in an isolated and concentrated mode, you will advance faster as a philologist, that is, you will be better oriented in the principles of language learning. And everyone else will perfectly follow her.
2. Each language for its task
If you practice several languages at the same time, it is a good idea to divide the topic into each language. This comes in handy when you’re more or less familiar with the language, but need a lot of practice.
Do, for example, like this:
English – practice it on some series
Spanish – read some interesting book
Polish language – read another book
and so on.
In this way, you will always be interested in learning languages, because you need to learn a language not for the sake of language (although it is also interesting), but to learn what interests you in a new language. Then practice follows necessity.
Work for an individual task has 5 advantages:
1) you use the acquired knowledge and skills here and now;
2) you can critically and objectively evaluate yourself in the mornings of one month, you do not need to wait for the end of the course.
3) your language is automated, that is, you too can use it without a parallel translation into your native language in your head.
4) at the end of the courses, you will be able to easily maintain the language, because you are already learning it and using it as a tool
5) you get a clear understanding of how to study and what are the quality indicators.
One language for teaching.
The second is for sports.
The third is rest.
One needs more grammar, the other less.
When practicing languages, they are still leveled to a specific level.
3. Special exercises for switching between languages
The result comes over time, but it can be accelerated by practicing special techniques and language combination exercises.
Always pay attention to the “switching between languages” skill.
Separately and consciously.