GRAMMAR

PRINCIPLES

WHICH GRAMMAR TO LEARN?

This issue is fully resolved even before the first lesson, when the teacher draws up an individual program.

If the student is studying for a certificate, then the basic and most necessary grammar has already been determined and prepared in advance.

LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS

There are several levels of consciousness in learning anything, including grammar:
– deliberately
– intuitively
– a mess

Consciously means thoughtfully. For example, when you are asked: “Why is this grammar here?”, you will be able to answer easily.

Intuitively – this is when it seems to you that this is how it should be. This style is ineffective if you study the language 90% in class + do not do homework. It is more or less suitable for those who have a combination of “strong daily listening practice + speaking”.

A mess is when you don’t learn grammar in class + you have almost no language practice outside of class. Such people spend years making primitive mistakes in basic grammar, despite the fact that they can speak quite confidently. I strongly advise against allowing yourself to get into this state.

EXERCISES AND TECHNIQUES

As always, all exercises are divided into two main groups: study and activation. Grammar is no exception.

1 STUDY

1. HOW MUCH TIME?
1) Include in the plan.
The amount of time for explanations should be clearly stated in your lesson plan, either verbally or in writing.

2) All groups are different.
The length of time to explain the same grammar can vary dramatically depending on the ability of your students. Therefore, if you teach in several groups, it does not mean that everything will go the same way.

3) Practice before the lesson. The best way is to simply record yourself at home on video and analyze how much time you spent, where you went wrong, what was good and what was not so good.

2. METHOD OF DEMONSTRATION
During the explanation of grammar, the student must look somewhere and listen to something. Let's analyze the options:

1) Blackboard + voice
YOU: explain and at the same time write on the board or show slides, use examples and easy surveys to periodically check that everyone understands everything.
STUDENTS: look exclusively at the board and listen to you.

2) Textbook + voice
YOU: look at the book and comment with your voice, sometimes you look up at the students to detail or demonstrate something, or to make sure that everyone understands what is being said.
STUDENTS: also look exclusively at the book and sometimes look up when you address them.

3) Video format.
Pre-record a video of students watching the presentation. Unfortunately, there is no way to check the student's understanding during the explanation.

 

At this point, you need to make sure everyone understands the tip. At this stage, only theory and clarity of actions are important. If everything is fine, we move on to the next STEP 2 - Controlled practice.

At this stage, the teacher must see in practice that each student has understood how to do everything.

Control practice is the process of first practicing grammar.
When the minimum of variables:
- short phrases
- only familiar words
- simple tasks (insert a word or change a word)
- a sufficient number of tasks for getting used to, the main indicator for the transition to free practice is automation and at least 8/10 correct answers.

1) "whole class" format.
Supervised practice usually takes place in a whole-group format. Everyone takes turns performing tasks aloud to the whole group, the teacher comments and everyone listens. And so one by one.

2) Speed
It is very important that the controlled practice takes place slowly. The teacher must make sure that everyone understands everything in practice.

3) Atmosphere
Before moving to free practice, it is necessary to create a comfortable atmosphere. Everyone should feel smart and even more caring of the teacher. Be sure to repeat again if necessary or pay special attention to individual students.

Free practice is when students work either independently or in pairs. When the essence is already well understood and now everyone just builds confidence, speed and adds improvisation. When you don't need to correct the smallest mistakes.

After the transition to free practice, we gradually begin to introduce evaluation. This is very important for growth.
Overconfident and talkative students are faced with the reality of assessment and become a little more reserved and attentive as you see mistakes in their eyes.
More shy students, with skillful teaching, become much more confident. Because they see their results again.

Recommended number of mistakes per 10 sentences:
the initial level of development: 8
the average level of development: 4
high level of development: 2

A passing indicator is a result that indicates that the student can move on to the upcoming grammar.

I use a special notebook for marking errors. You can download or buy it here.

I always measure the time of the exercise. This is necessary for both the student and the teacher. The student brings his skill to the required confident level, and the teacher receives an objective indicator for moving on to the next exercise. More on this in the EVALUATION section

 

Tense levels for 10 simple sentences:
initial mastery:  2:00
average mastery: 1:20
high level: 00:50
ideal: 00:35

Quizzes are a great way to check your grammar. Although, you should always keep in mind that taking written grammar tests and using grammar in conversation are sometimes different things. Therefore, testing gives us an overall picture of understanding grammar, an opportunity to calmly check and make corrections. At the same time, we learn grammar not for tests, but for confident speaking.

In the form of testing, mobile applications are the best. They are very convenient and very cheap compared to printed books.

2 ACTIVATION

Instructions – is a ground exercise everywhere.

You can practice almost any grammar by simply substituting the verb in the correct grammar tense.

Parallel translation combines many types of activity. Main tasks:
1) Diversify.
Provide a variety of grammatical constructions

2) Control.
They clearly force you to translate the way it should be, not just your favorite version.

3) Activate passive grammar.
Due to oral translation, you not only know how to substitute grammar, but also get used to its active use both orally and aurally.

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